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Geography 2 (Essay) – 09:30a.m. – 11:30 a.m.
Geography 1 (Objective) – 11:30a.m. – 12:30 p.m


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(i) Production of consumer goods
(ii) Products mainly consumed internally
(iii) Mainly small scale industries

(i) Making relevant products: manufacturing industries in-tropical Africa create an environment where the products created for it populace are made with a proper understanding of their needs. 
(ii) Job creation: With vast youth unemployment in the tropical Africa , manufacturing is one of the only sectors next to agriculture that can create a significant amount of jobs for the currently unemployed in these areas.
(iii) Participation in the global economy: Unlike other countries that have strong manufacturing
sectors, tropical Africa countries is limited in its participation in the global economy.

(i) inadequate capital
(ii) poor management
(iii) shortage of raw materials
(iv) poor infrastructure


(i) Site(physical location) 
(ii) Situation(location in relation to other areas)
(iii) Size
(iv) Function 
(v) Plan and layout(structure)

(i) Aging population
(ii) Lifestyle 
(iii) Economy

(i) Depletion of Natural Resources: The Earth can only produce a limited amount of water and food, which is falling short of their current needs. Acts of violence and aggression have increased tremendously while competing for resources.
(ii) Degradation of Environment: With the overuse of coal, oil and natural gas, it has started producing some serious effects on their environment.
(iii) High Cost of Living: As difference between demand and supply continues to expand due to overpopulation in Japan, it raises the prices of various commodities including food, shelter and healthcare. 


(i)the north Atlantic route
(ii)the Panama central route
(iii)trans Pacific trade route
(iv)the south Atlantic route

(i) it help in the transportation of goods and materials at cheaper and safer means
(ii) National and international trade water transportation enhance trade between two or more countries and also between two regions
(iii) It enhance access to national resources; through transportation, different natural resources are discovered.
(iv) Generationals of revenue water transportation generate revenue through obtaining license from the government of it nations

(i) River should be dredged regular
(ii) Ship should be equipped with refrigerated holds
(iii) Water weeds should be put under permanent controls
(iv) Construction of canals to by pass water falls and cataract


(i) Land use: Traditional farms are very small usually only 1 to 3 hectares. The goods produced on these small farming units is used mainly for consumption of the family. The consumption survival considerations dominate the commercial ones.
(ii) Labour: Labour used per hectare tends to be high in traditional farming. Mostly the family labour works on the subsistence farms. 
(iii) Productivity and efficiency: The subsistence farming or traditional farms are characterized by low of inputs which are mostly provided by the farmer himself . For example seeds, cow dung manure etc are not purchased by the farmers. Yields per hectare, production per person and overall productivity tend to be low.
(iv) Income and level of living: The income and level of living of the subsistence farmers is mostly below poverty line.

(i) Provision of basic needs of the family like food and clothing
(ii) It does not require too much plots of land to cultivate.
(iii) Low capital is required to carry out subsistence farming.
(iv) It does not require the hiring of labour. 

(i) No surplus for sale to earn income. All produce are consumed by the family.
(ii) Family labour supply is unreliable because they are not paid for job done.
(iii) Fragmentation or small farmland is available because lands are owned communally and usually shared among family members regardless of whether they are interested in farming or not

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Draw The Map

(i)It leads to provision of social ammenities
(ii)It leads to inventions and innovations due to competition among industries
(iii)It leads to development of oganised market eg cooperative societies
(iv)It leads to attraction of subsidiary industries

(i)The turn over of large scale manufacturing industries is heavy
(ii)Large scale manufacturing industries employ more people
(iii)Large scale manufacturing industries render social services more than small scale manufacturing industries


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