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Exam Time: Thursday 13th July 2017
OBJ & Essay – Civic Education – 10am – 1pm



(Answer TWO questions from this section)

(i) Unprotected sexual intercourse
(ii) Unsecured blood transfusion
(iii) Sharing of sharp objects
(iv) Mother to child transmission

(i) Unprotected sexual intercourse:
People can get infected with HIV through sexual intercourse with infected partners especially when the sexual intercourse is casual and unprotected.

(ii) Unsecured blood transfusion: 
HIV can be spread by blood transfusion especially when the transfused blood is not properly screened.

(iii) Sharing of sharp objects:
When you use the same syringe to inject more than one person, those injected stands a risk of being infected with HIV. People ho share sharp unsterilized and contaminated sharp objects like scissors, knives, manicure equipments,syringes, clippers, blades, ect stands a chance of being infected.

(iv) Mother to child transmission:
A pregnant woman who has HIV can easily trnsfer the virus into her child at birth or during breast feeding.

(i) Night sweats
(ii) Fever lasting for more than a month
(iii) About 20% weight loss or loss of appetite
(iv) Dry cough lasting for more than a month
(v) Itching stain infections.
(vi) Swelling around the neck, armpit and private part 
(vii)Oral thrush whitish sports in the mouth


Human trafficking is the trade in humans, most commonly for the purpose of sexual slavery, forced labor or commercial sexual exploitation for the traffickers.

(i)Poverty: This is a situation where a person fall short of a level of economic welfare, where a person lacks the basic human want which are clothing, food and shelter. And this leads to human trafficking 

(ii) Lack of employment opportunities : Due to the bad economic situation of some countries that made some people jobless, some people therefore get lured and deceived by traffickers because they want to get out of the country and thereby using them as slaves and prostitutes in other countries.

(iii) Greed: The get rich quick syndrome has eaten deep into the minds of the young people in developing countries. Unfortunately, the society pays little emphasis on the source of wealth of their people making the youths eager to find ways to acquire wealth and be celebrated

(iv) Ignorance/illitracy: It is said that knowledge is power. Those who are not aware of the ills and effects of human trafficking are more susceptible to fall prey to the traffickers than the others. Information on trafficking empowers people to be on guide and take measures to avoid being a victim

(v) Economic system : Because of poor economic system of some countries the citizens prefer to live somewhere else and would not mind to go anywhere and because of this they become a victim.

(vi) Globalization: The world they say is a global village and as such recruitment has been made easy. The vulnerable only knows that his chance of survival economically is higher in developed societies

(Answer TWO questions from this section)

Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or part of a nation

(i) Citizenship by Birth
(ii) Citizenship by Registration
(iii) Citizenship by Naturalization
(iv) Citizenship by Descent

(i) Citizenship by Birth: If one or both of a person's parents are citizens of a given state, then the person may have the right to be a citizen of that state as well

(ii) Citizenship by Registration: A person can be a citizen of a country through registration. This mostly occurs to women who marry foreign nationals. For instance, a Gambian woman married to a Nigerian may register as a citizen of Nigeria but she must satisfy certain conditions such as residing in Nigeria and should take the oath of allegiance to Nigeria and renounce her Gambian citizenship

(iii) Citizenship by Naturalization: This is another way through which an individual can acquire citizenship in a country. Through this method, the individual must satisfy certain basic conditions such as in the case of Nigeria, the individual must have lived in Nigeria for not less than 15 years, he must have a job, he must be an honourable person, that is, not a criminal and must be recommended by a very important person in the country

(iv) Citizenship by Descent: This is a method of acquiring citizenship of another country as a result of the fact that his grandparents are citizens of the country


Pubic Service is a body or a department in the executive arm of the Government responsible for the execution of the policies and programmes of the Government

(i) Tribalism: This has been the yardstick for choosing who to employ and sack in the Nigerian public service
(ii) Political Instability : Constant and regular change of top rank office holders in public service brings about constant instability of rules and regulations. This constantly leads to the shortcomings in the public service
(iii) Political Interference: Many Governments in power do not allow the free flow of duties due to their undue interference which at most times is only favorable to politicians
(iv) Poor Orientation and Low Salaries: Public servants get poor or no orientations about their jobs. This is coupled with their low salary earnings as peanut which is another reason for shortcomings
(v) Lack of Qualified Personnel: Most people in various public service offices either neglect their right jobs or have little or no experience about it but carry out such services due to their search for greener pasture
(vi) Inadequate Training Facilities: The Nigerian public service lacks adequate training facilities for staff improvement of skill


Civil society refers to any entity formed by a group of people with similar interests who come together to work on a common goal

(i) Conflict resolution
(ii) Promotion of political participation
(iii) Building community
(iv) Socialization

(i) Conflict resolution: It plays an important role in meditating and helping to resolve conflict in the state.
(ii) Promotion of political participation: It promotes political participation through the process of educating people about the about their rights and obligations as democratic citizen and also encourage them to participate in election
(iii) Building community: Engagement and participation in voluntary associations also has the potential to strengthen bonds among citizens
(iv) Socialization: Civil society contributes to the formation and practice of democratic attitudes among citizens. Thus people learn to develop tolerance, mutual trust and the ability to relate with people


Popular Participation in Politics refers to the procedure of involving majority of the citizens of a country in the decision making processes, especially on issues that affect the welfare of the generality of the populace

(i) Bad Governance
(ii) Rigging of election
(iii) Past History of Political Occurrence
(iv) Violent Campaign

(i) Bad Governance: The government of Nigeria for instance rules in a bad and carefree manner, their act does not motivate people thereby making people to ignore and nonchalant to political activities
(ii) Rigging of election: so many citizens belief that no matter the level of security election are going to be rigged either directly or indirectly thereby they see voting as a waste of time and energy
(iii) Past History of Political Occurrence: Due to the fact that some family members, friends and relatives have been victimized in the process of participating in political issues, because of this experience people decide not to participate in politics
(iv) Violent Campaign: Sometimes, the way political parties carry out their carry out their campaigns appears too violent and this can lead to lack of interest in politics.

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