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(i) Climatic factors: Favourable climate for instance in europe attracts high population while areas with harsh climates do not attract population eg the cold and the hot desert
(ii) Relief: Rugged and high mountains like Himalayas do not favour high population density while low lands and river valleys like Nile delta,Gariyes delta etc favours high population
(iii) Soil: Fertile soil favours agricultural farmers,agricultural production and hence favours high population eg Java,Nile valley etc whereas areas with poor soil like polar regions and deserts do not
(iv) Mineral resources: Large population concentration occurs in areas with mineral resources eg coal in Ruhr valley in germany,Gold in south africa etc while areas with no mineral resources do not

(i) It helps to establish the birth rate
(ii) It helps to determine the dependency ratio of the economy

(i) Reduction in population: Due to the migration of able bodied men from source region,there is declining problem in the production at the source region
(ii) Increase in dependency ratio: Since able bodied men migrates the majority of the remaining population are dependent majorly infants and old people
(iii) Food shortage: This occurs as a result of the migration of young people that can engage in agriculture from the source region



(i) Low capital to develop tourism in tropical africa
(ii) Unfavourable government policy hindering the development of tourism
(iii) Inadequate skilled labour and poor management method
(iv) Poor and old technology to develop tourism in tropical africa


(i) Synthetic industry: This industry relates to the putting of various raw materials together to make a final product. E g Plastic chair,plate.
(ii) Processing industry is an industry, which produces the final products by using raw materials and semi raw materials through different stages of production. E.g Textile industry
(iii) Assembling industries refers to that industry which assembles various component parts that are already manufactured to make a new product. E.g vehicles manufacturing industries .
(iv)Construction industry are industries, which are concerned to the engineering, erecting and construction of building products. E.g construction companies.

(i)lack of basic infrastructures: this has always being the major obstacle to development. and industrialization in africa. the continent lack facilities like good roads, water and rail transport facilities, communication facilities.
over dependence on foreign machines : most of the technology and machines used by local manufacturers in africa are imported from other countries. and this machines are usually very expensive.
illiteracy /inadequate skilled manpower: the illiteracy rate in the africa is very high. this problem is worsened by the lack of adequate technical education in our secondary schools and universities.
political instability and militancy: frequent changes in government policies and incessant insurgencies have been a bane to industrialization and development in africa.

(i)provision of basic infrastructures: the government should provide adequate infrastructure like electricity, good road network,rail and water transportfacilities, improved communication infrastructures and so on.
encourage local manufacture of industrial machines: the government should also encourage and support local engineering firms to venture into the manufacturing of some of the heavy industrial machines imported from abroad.
improved education system/ manpower training: the government should work towards improving our educational system. technical courses should be introduced into the secondary and university curriculum
(iv) Political stability/sscurity: government should minimize the constant change of economic policies.



(i)Industry development: many people are attracted to these areas because of more presence of industries in the areas
(ii) Improved standard of living: A lot of people migrate to these places so as to live a better live
(iii) Basic amenities: as a result of presence of basic amenities like roads pipe borne water etc more people tend to come to these areas
(iv) Employment opportunities: many people come to these area to seek for employment due to more presence of industries
(v) Ffavourable government policies: due to favourable government policies many people are attracted to these area

(i) Delayed marriages: A marriage at a tender age leads to a long span for giving birth.
(ii) Medical facilities: availability of good hospitals and doctors is limited to urban centers thus resulting in high infant mortality rate in rural areas.
(iii) Easy and cheap availability of contraceptives: Ensuring that people have easy and cheap access to contraception tools will help avoiding cases of unwanted pregnancies and births.


(ii)burkina faso
(iii)cape verde

(iii)health care delivery
(iv)gender inequality

(i) Teaching of French or English languages as appropriate in all formal/non-formal regions
(ii) Support and participation of traditional rulers and/or religious to strengthen the potentials of processing conflict solution
(iii) Developing potentials in traditional medicine/establishment of general hospital in some non-formal areas
(iv) Promotion of successfull network of nature in gender-related environment
(v) Provision of many job opportunities


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